Thursday, April 2, 2009

Hunger (2008)




Steve McQueen's feature film debut, Hunger, is an uneven but viscerally forceful picture. Where it fails in comprehensiveness and even filmic movement—McQueen's vignettes almost all stand apart, disparately creating momentary displeasure and disgust, never quite gelling into a substantive narrative, or at least only belatedly finding one to pursue—it succeeds in sensational conviction befitting its subject matter. Not unlike Mel Gibson's The Passion of the Christ, McQueen's film is fervent and nearly maniacal in its unblinking stare; unlike Gibson's film, McQueen's attempt to chronicle the sixty-six day hunger strike spearheaded by Irish Republican Army leader Bobby Sands (Michael Fassbender) is secular in its devotionally obsessive focus. Drawing a parallel between both the cruelty visited upon the defiant and disruptive prisoners of the Northern Ireland Maze Prison by the guards and Sands' self-inflicted choice to starve himself to Christ's passion on several occasions, McQueen and collaborator (and playwright) Enda Walsh seem to nevertheless yearn to unfurl their drama with a level of detachment.

That detachment, however, is occasionally made questionable, and McQueen's actual beliefs are ostensibly betrayed by his insistence of layering stylistic flourishes atop the occurrences his film essays. One repetitive touchstone is the usage of British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher verbally condemning the Irish Republican Army members as violent terrorists unworthy of the political prisoner status for which they protested. McQueen creates significant sympathy for the Irish prisoners, demonstrating with an unalloyed minimalism, as they communicate through tiny wads of paper passed along through their mouths to one another during mass. However, McQueen and Walsh exhibit empathy for the guards as well; indeed, the film opens with an extended sequence during which the camera follows along a guard who is washing and soothing his scarred-over knuckles in water. In one scene of vicious brutality, one guard appears almost traumatized, weeping as he recognizes the levels of de-humanization to which he and his peers have descended.

While examining Hunger it is advantageous to consider the chiefest qualities of cinema; its immediate fluency, and proficiency when optimally used to convey information. For example, in many of the better unironic, under-appreciated “genre” films, it is almost always the acuity of the filmmaking that enhances the narratively prosaic. It is in these films where the visual craftsmanship and aesthetic stylishness benefits the films' unalloyed machinations. When appropriately meshed, visualization supersedes what is commonly called “plot.” From Taken to Point Break, and many other examples, it is the artful accession of élan that endows the familiar.
So it is with a slightly confounded mien that it is realized that McQueen's Hunger is almost arriving at the opposite spectrum of cinema—the “story” is at the service of his craftsmanship. McQueen is trained as a fine artist, and his debut film is delineated by ostentatiousness and precociousness. The entire ninety-six minute film plays out like an exercise in quaffing precious artfulness. With the proverbial tips of the hat to Robert Bresson (the meticulously detailed manner in which the prisoners communicate with one another cannot not remind of A Man Escaped) and Stanley Kubrick (the entire film accounts de-humanization—of prisoner and guard alike—and a sequence in which a group of jackbooted thugs stand in a long hallway cannot not bring images of Full Metal Jacket to most filmgoers who will actually watch Hunger), McQueen's confidence, at least bordering on arrogance, is doubtless.

Not that there is anything wrong with a stubborn, uncompromising artistic initiative—with Hunger, it is the imagery that stays, long after the final credits have unspooled, after all, but for its second and most impressive act. Nonetheless, McQueen's picture plays like numerous sketches aligned together for the purpose of making a film. Coherence is not an issue—Hunger is rigorously minimalistic and quite slowly paced, which contributes to the pervasive feeling of crushing, listless boredom that is as poisonous to the souls of the prisoners (and guards) as the ordeals to which they are subjected as a price of their disobedience. Ocular recording of the tellurian plays heavily into the visceral potency that is Hunger's most certain attribute. As a guard sedates himself with a quiet sojourn to the yard, smoking a cigarette in the wintry weather, snowflakes fall upon him. McQueen and director of photography Sean Bobbitt capture the subsequent moment on film with fine delicacy. The guard who had earlier soothed his beaten, battered and bloodied knuckles in water finds little snowflakes weep from the sky and landing on his scars and marks of self-inflection against the heads of many prisoners. McQueen's fine artist eye catches many more undisguised flourishes. Prisoners smear their own excrement upon the walls of their cells, and McQueen's camera seems particularly attuned to the spiral patterns one prisoner creates with feces-wall painting.

The best portion of the film, however, is a bravura, unbroken sequence in which McQueen's camera remains still and there are no interruptions of cutting. For over fifteen minutes, two men, Sands, and Father Moran (an extremely stirring and profound Liam Cunningham: his performance alone makes Hunger worth the investment) speak to one another in ostensible “real time,” volleying points to one another. The steadied duration of this puissant portion creates uneasy astriction and tautness, deftly providing an atmospheric contextual support for the final act of the film that details Sands' self-imposed bodily disintegration, wherein the film finally does become soporose in its hazily blurred perspective. When the camera finally does break the hypnotic spell, it is to emphasize Sands' words as he tells an allegorical story from his childhood about doing what was right and accepting the consequences with the peace, dignity and knowledge that he had the courage to do what was right. The conversation between Sands and Father Moran is utterly bewitching and fascinating, and an instance of actors correctly taking over a film and the director allowing them the freedom, space and time with which to tell a story.

It is, then, almost humorously appropriate to consider the inherent artifice of the entire riveting conversation. By all accounts, Sands and Father Moran never spoke to one another, whereas it is clear that such events as IRA members being beaten, refusing to wear certain prison uniforms and going on hunger strikes are part of recorded history. In Hunger's major and outstanding concession to filmic progress and peregrination, it actually extols the virtues of the cinematically schematic derived by storytelling strategies and considerations of scenario. Unlike The Class, which was made intentionally visually unappealing by its director, Hunger is a film with several toes dipped in the waters of vérité filmmaking and mise-en-scene construction but with other toes hanging on to almost wheezing exhalations of exhilaratingly intense abstract artistry. That the most dazzling set-piece of Hunger almost perversely proves the efficacy of what may be loosely defined as “make-believe” is deeply paradoxical.

In the film's foggy, more asomatously focused, denouement, Sands allows his body to waste away. McQueen follows the process with a serviceable melange of the dispassionate and the assertive, engendering a cumulative tableau of a man gradually drifting away. Misty flashbacks to his childhood, the personal history from which he told the emotional story to Father Moran, abut the film's apparent moroseness in its consideration of a young man's life concluding long before it should have. The correlation to Jesus Christ becomes less distancing than it was earlier in the film—a manufactured line of dialogue from Sands in which he says that Christ's disciples were merely jumping on a bandwagon after Christ laid it all on the line himself diminishes their own respectively harsh fates and credentials for martyrdom—as McQueen visualizes Sands' earthly demise. Long, uninterrupted takes with sepia-toned dissolves overlapping atop them punctuates Sands' sixty-six days of deprivation. A flock of birds flying off represents Sands' soul taking flight in a sequence that at least borders on the clichéd, but, like so much of the film, makes itself at least stand apart through sheer force of will.

38 comments:

cinema guy said...

Mr. Coleman – no surprise, but again, here is another excellent, well thought out, and well-delivered piece… You make the point quite nicely abut Hunger being something of a series of images (albeit beautifully composed ones) that don't quite add up to solidified narrative - at least not in the traditional sense. There is no doubt that one feels those gaps and the film, ultimately, is in some ways more similar to art installation than it is traditional narrative cinema, and yet powerful all the same... Previous films about republicanism (Cal; Some Mother’s Son; The Boxer; Bloody Sunday; Omagh), fictional or not, have been focused on portraying historical events in a fairly straightforward manner. Hunger embarks on a tricky course - creating a highly fictionalized story about an extremely sensitive series of historical political events, utilizing actual news audio of a political leader, inventing non-existent characters, combining some true historical facts, recreating violent, largely wordless politically charged imagery, and also breaking with the style of the rest of the film by employing a twenty minute scene of pure dialogue (with an uninterrupted 17 1/2 minute section done in one take)... I thought the scene with the priest played just like, well… a play, and perhaps betrayed co-writer Walsh's roots as a playwright. I thought the beginning (when Moran (Cunningham) and Sands (Fassbender) spar in a joking manner) of the scene was awful – completely forced and false. Once the two begin speaking about the proposed hunger strikes the scene goes from like a 2 to a 9, though, which makes it all the more strange. The first section should have definitely been left in the editing room though. Your comments about this scene are very interesting… “Hunger is a film with several toes dipped in the waters of vérité filmmaking and mise-en-scene construction but with other toes hanging on to almost wheezing exhalations of exhilaratingly intense abstract artistry. That the most dazzling set-piece of Hunger almost perversely proves the efficacy of what may be loosely defined as “make-believe.” – as I understand it you are suggesting that McQueen is playing with the idea of the art of film itself (and specifically this one) by creating a transparently “false” or stylized scene in the midst of this minimalistic, impressionistic set of visual vignettes. Is it possible that he and Walsh devised this as a conscious counterbalance to the rest of the film, which in many ways is the antithesis of this scene, so full of obvious stylization and expository dialogue – Sands explaining himself, telling a story with very obvious metaphor...??? These ideas seem to lead into other waters as well – the idea of the form and how it relates to time. The idea of “doing time” is, seemingly, important here – because time changes for those subjected to long periods of incarceration, and even for those working in and around those who are - where looking at a bug becomes a minute, then an hour, where those incarcerated feel their relation to the outside shifting as weeks become months, memory and the present merges into some kind of altered reality, months becoming years – through the use of stunning images these ideas are wonderfully evoked in this film. As you say, “Coherence is not an issue—Hunger is rigorously minimalistic and quite slowly paced, which contributes to the pervasive feeling of crushing, listless boredom that is as poisonous to the souls of the prisoners (and guards) as the ordeals to which they are subjected as a price of their disobedience.”… Visually, I think the film is fairly awesome and arresting, and though there has been criticism levied about the fetishization of the human form, I actually think McQueen does justice to the violence and degradation that was done to these men. By refusing to shy away from stark and sometimes ugly images there is both an honoring of the truth, and a visual consistency to the film. We observe all of the images in the same protracted time frame and therefore no hierarchical aesthetic judgment is imposed... It troubles me a bit though when history is potentially skewed, and there are little things that are simply off about this depiction (this would require an essay on its own, but...) - as in the characterization of Sands, a (by all accounts) funny, charismatic leader (despite Fassbender's excellent performance) which does not demonstrate the self-deprecating, gallows wit typical of the Irish, and Sands in particular. Also, while the prisoners are shown communicating through note passing, they devised many other ways to speak and also sang songs at night, etc. Further, they spoke Irish with one another (that the guards couldn't understand), which is even more important given the fact that the British essentially stole the language from the Irish people, and using the language became a form of rebellion in and of itself. There are many other seemingly small details like these that are off, although it becomes harder to criticize an artist who is endeavoring to create an image-filled impressionist painting. While clearly the artist benefits from this freedom of not having to get everything exact, does this indemnify him/her from those responsibilities when dealing with the historic? – interesting question anyway... On the whole McQueen does a good job with the larger "truth" though, and he does subtly deliver some information (it's obvious he did his homework). He squeezes in a number of details (water glass near Sands’s bed (they took salt and water); the conversation at Mass; the note passing and visitors passing contraband - some of the more fine of which will go by the boards for most as the focus (at least for most of the film) is on anything but the politics and very much on the physical, the events unfolding in real and elapsed time. There were, of course, several hunger strikes, involving a number of men (beyond the 10 who died) - some aborted after a set number of days, and Irish republicans had a history, long before 1981, of using hunger strikes as political protest. The 1981 strikes went on for many months with one prisoner replacing the other following death (Sands' strike went on 66 days, which was one of the longer ones.) Others were pulled off the strike for various reasons (family intervention, etc.). Behind it all was the IRA, who were using (with the cooperation of the prisoners) the men to make their point in the international media. Everything here - from the blanket protests (no clothes if they couldn't wear their street clothes) to the dirty protests (feces slathered on walls) to the hunger strikes were about protesting their conditions and being acknowledged as soldiers fighting an adjust occupation and the subjugation they had endured… Lastly, I find it interesting that seemingly no one has spoken about McQueen being British and black – I think it’s pretty interesting and there is no doubt a deeper story there that has yet to be told… Mr. Coleman, thanks again for another wonderful, thought-provoking essay/review

Alexander Coleman said...

Thank you, cinema guy, as always I can count on you to exhaust all avenues of both the film in question and my review of such.

I agree that Hunger follows a particular course of its own, and I must say your reading of my point about the film's breaking from its own ostensible form, and making a meta comment on the "art of film itself," as you sagaciously state.

Mostly, however, I must thank you for contributing so much historical information about this matter. Knowing certain elements of "The Troubles" myself, I do agree with you about the point--unfortunately lost in this picture--that the Irish language, through which these IRA prisoners communicated with one another, was an audial avatar of rebellion unto itself, stolen from the Irish as it was by the English. Most fascinating. Thank you, again, I'm overwhelmed.

Also, just as friendly advice, paragraph breaks would help make your posts far more accessible and legible.

Thank you once again for the extraordinarily kind words.

Sam Juliano said...

Alexander, if you didn't mention Robert Bresson's A MAN ESCAPED in this essay, I would have disowned you!

Just kidding. LOL!!!

of course you did, and as you say, how could you NOT be reminded of it? I like this film a bit less than you do, but your review posed at the very beginning that it was an "uneven" film. And as you say (later corroborated by "Cinema Guy") the parts do not add up to a cogent whole. I have seen that PASSION OF THE CHRIST comparison, and I'll admit this film is definitely not for the squeamish. As I recall the earlier scenes of the film are highly observational, like for example one sequence of shooting the crumbs as they drop on a napkin on a man's lap. Of course this always invariably portends disaster.
HUNGER of course is divided into the three sections, the first of course as you mention in your review contains the Margaret Thatcher radiocast, condemning the I.R.A. Th story of Bobby Sands of course is exceedingly grim, and this intense, often "silent" film is mostly riveting.

Yet, it falters by trying to say too much about the general situation, when the human scope here is rather narrow. And some of the symbolism (related to martyrdom) is simply too heavy-handed.

Yet I couldn't agree with you more as to what you superbly say here:

"The best portion of the film, however, is a bravura, unbroken sequence in which McQueen's camera remains still and there are no interruptions of cutting. For over fifteen minutes, two men, Sands, and Father Moran (an extremely stirring and profound Liam Cunningham: his performance alone makes Hunger worth the investment) speak to one another in ostensible “real time,” volleying points to one another. The steadied duration of this puissant portion creates uneasy astriction and tautness, deftly providing an atmospheric contextual support for the final act of the film that details Sands' self-imposed bodily disintegration, wherein the film finally does become soporose in its hazily blurred perspective."

In the end Alexander, as to what you speak of in your fourth paragraph, I do think that coherence is important if this film is to have a lasting effect. Perhaps as a result of the 'arrogance' you speak of and perhaps because he simply tried too hard, HUNGER may not have lasting resonance. Time will tell.

An analytical masterpiece of a film review though, that's not in doubt.

cinema guy said...

My apologies about the lack of breaks -- you are quite right, of course... and sorry about the length -- your pieces are thought provoking and you always seem to bring up multiple avenues I had not thought of...

Alexander Coleman said...

Cinema Guy: no worries, my friend, and thank you very much for the kind words once again.

Sam: Once again, sorry for not responding through email but Comcast is behaving quite poorly today! (As I just discussed in my comment over at the Louis Malle film thread.)

In any event, thank you for the very kind words yet again. Yes, Hunger is a tough nut to crack, so to speak; I didn't feel as though it was so disjointed or poorly conceived that it merited an outright pan, as say, Gomorrah did, but I could hardly give the film an uncomplicated recommendation to be viewed for others, either. As such it falls somewhere right in-between; I admire numerous qualities and aspects of the film, and I enjoyed McQueen's eye for detail, as Cinema Guy notes with regards to the glass of water (interestingly, that has been my main source of food recently, too--just water, haha), and like you say the nods to Bresson and his A Man Escaped (I figured you'd see that same parallel, Sam!) and other touches, were largely successful on their own.

However, I must say I do agree with your final, stinging comment, Sam, which is that I'm afraid Hunger, as well-crafted as it is, is probably not "built to last," as they say. A noble effort but, as you quote my review itself, a rather uneven one, too. Thank you again, my friend.

Alexander Coleman said...

Cinema Guy: no worries, my friend, and thank you very much for the kind words once again.

Sam: Once again, sorry for not responding through email but Comcast is behaving quite poorly today! (As I just discussed in my comment over at the Louis Malle film thread.)

In any event, thank you for the very kind words yet again. Yes, Hunger is a tough nut to crack, so to speak; I didn't feel as though it was so disjointed or poorly conceived that it merited an outright pan, as say, Gomorrah did, but I could hardly give the film an uncomplicated recommendation to be viewed for others, either. As such it falls somewhere right in-between; I admire numerous qualities and aspects of the film, and I enjoyed McQueen's eye for detail, as Cinema Guy notes with regards to the glass of water (interestingly, that has been my main source of food recently, too--just water, haha), and like you say the nods to Bresson and his A Man Escaped (I figured you'd see that same parallel, Sam!) and other touches, were largely successful on their own.

However, I must say I do agree with your final, stinging comment, Sam, which is that I'm afraid Hunger, as well-crafted as it is, is probably not "built to last," as they say. A noble effort but, as you quote my review itself, a rather uneven one, too. Thank you again, my friend.

Film-Book dot Com said...

I just got around to reviewing Hunger myself. I will give your review a thorough reading later today.

Alexander Coleman said...

Thank you, Film-Book. I'll be sure to look at your review when I find the time (which should be in the next few days). Thanks again.

donald mook said...

hey i know this guy.
i think he was in the special olympics bowling team

Film-Book dot Com said...

“That detachment, however, is occasionally made questionable, and McQueen's actual beliefs are ostensibly betrayed by his insistence of layering stylistic flourishes atop the occurrences his film essays.”
That I missed. I did not research director McQueen.

“As a guard sedates himself with a quiet sojourn to the yard, smoking a cigarette in the wintry weather, snowflakes fall upon him… The guard who had earlier soothed his beaten, battered and bloodied knuckles in water finds little snowflakes weep from the sky and landing on his scars and marks of self-inflection against the heads of many prisoners.”
This I noticed as well. An artistic touch by McQueen. I love it when an director uses his camera to paint, like Terrence Malick in The New World.

“unbroken sequence in which McQueen's camera remains still and there are no interruptions of cutting. For over fifteen minutes, two men, Sands, and Father Moran (an extremely stirring and profound Liam Cunningham: his performance alone makes Hunger worth the investment) speak to one another in ostensible “real time,” volleying points to one another.”
Cunningham moved in with Fassbender for a few week so they could practice that scene. Some days they would perform it 15 times so they both had it completely memorized.

dean said...

we're going downhill like a snow ball heading for hell. no hope for the flag or the liberty bell. and we;re on full retard mode like sean penn

barry said...

im full retard bowling teem now. were all going down the toilet but its ok because i just got a dog from brain dead ted

Pat said...

Alexander -

As always, fine and intelligent work.

I have not seen the Bresson film, so the similarities here escape me.
But overall, I had a different take on "Hunger." The lack of a coherent narrative, as well as the absence of polemics here didn't bother me -in fact, it made "Hunger" stronger and more interesting to me. There are other, more conventionally narrative films about these same events, but it was fascinating to me to be presented with images and vignettes and allowed to draw my own conclusions and provide my own contest. I also found its depiction of commitment and human suffering were made to seem more universal than particular to the struggle for an Irish republic this way. I don't pretend "Hunger" is a perfect film, but I think its a notable achivement for a first-time filmmaker.

I would also recommend Andrew O'Hehir's fine analysis of the film, which incorporates his interview with McQueen. I'll look for the link and send it along in a subsequent comment if you're interested.

Alexander Coleman said...

Thank you both, Film Book Dot Com and Pat! Both highly interesting comments. I will delve more deeply into them when I find time. I do appreciate your comments greatly, however. Pat, I'd love to have that link--you have whetted my appetite. :-)

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